28 September 2023, Volume 76 Issue 7

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  • Article
    Cheng Li, Dingwen Liu, Kun Yao, Jianye Liu, Jinrong Wang, Yichuan Zhang, Lina Cui, Long Wang
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 481-486. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.59
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    Background: The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has made new revisions to the N staging of penile cancer (PeCa). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the new N staging classification.

    Methods: This cohort was included from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988–2016). Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival curve. The Cox proportional hazards model was employed to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Among the included 583 patients, 270 patients had only one positive inguinal lymph node (ILNP), 115 had two ILNPs, and 198 had 3 or more ILNPs. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that The OS and CSS of patients with ILNP = 2 were not statistically different from those with ILNP = 1 (p = 0.394; p = 0.760), but had OS and CSS benefit over those with ILNP ≥3 (p = 0.017; p = 0.020). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that patients with ILNP = 2 and ILNP = 1 have similar OS and CSS (HR = 0.80, p = 0.153; HR = 0.74, p = 0.148), but patients with ILNP ≥3 had worse OS and CSS than patients with ILNP = 2 (HR = 1.56, p = 0.007; HR = 1.86, p = 0.003).

    Conclusions: PeCa patients with only one or two lymph node metastases had similar survival outcomes. AJCC 8th edition pN staging has a better discriminative ability to predict the prognosis and can accurately stratify mortality risk in PeCa.

  • Article
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 487-493. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.60
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    Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and analyze the daily clinical practice for male urethral stricture disease (MUSD) among urologists.

    Methods: Considering the latest guidelines on urethral stricture disease, a survey was developed regarding the various treatment options and preferences in different sites of male urethral stricture disease. The survey was sent to urologists via e-mail and phone application.

    Results: A total of 266 urologists completed the survey and were included in the final analysis. In regard to workplace, 62 (23.3%), 58 (21.8%), 71 (26.7%), and 75 (28.2%) respondents worked in university hospitals, training and research hospitals, state hospitals, and private practice hospitals, respectively. In regard to the diagnostic method used in male urethral strictures, 88.7% of the participants would choose uroflowmetry + postvoiding residual (UF + PVR), and 64.6% would choose retrograde urethrography (RUG). Direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) was the most frequently chosen method in penile urethral strictures (PUS), being chosen by 72.9%. Direct vision anterior internal urethrotomy was the most common method for both ≤2 cm and >2 cm strictures, 63.1%, and 30.8%, respectively. The most preferred graft for augmentation urethroplasty was buccal mucosa (75.8%). Endoscopic incision/resection (transurethral resection (TUR)) is the most frequently applied treatment method for posterior urethral/vesicourethral anastomotic strictures (86.4%).

    Conclusions: The present study clearly shows that most urologists still prefer DVIU and urethral dilatation to urethroplasty in MUSD, which contradicts current guidelines. Urologists should be encouraged to perform urethroplasty and/or refer patients to experienced centres for recurrent MUSD.

  • Article
    Xinru Zhang, Chao Feng, Xiao Bai, Xufeng Peng, Qian Guo, Lei Chen, Jingdong Xue
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 494-503. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.61
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    Background: Innovative strategies are necessary to enhance prostate cancer diagnosis whilst reducing unnecessary and invasive repeat biopsies. This study aimed to determine the significant parameters affecting repeat prostate biopsy outcomes and develop an optimal machine learning algorithm for predicting positive repeat prostate biopsy results.

    Methods: We analysed data from 174 men who underwent repeated prostate biopsies between January 2008 and December 2022. Systematic multiple-core, ultrasound-targeted prostate biopsies were performed, each two samples from prostatic transitional zone and peripheral zone were obtained bilaterally. Clinical characteristics were collected, including patients’ age, initial prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, free PSA (fPSA)/PSA ratio, biopsy core numbers, pathological result; The time interval between first and latest prostate biopsy; Latest PSA level, fPSA/PSA ratio, biopsy core numbers; And final pathological diagnosis. Six feature selection methods, namely, variable ranking, correlation matrix, random forest regression, recursive feature elimination, cross-validation and forward selection, were employed to identify key influencing factors for repeat biopsy outcomes. Subsequently, the performance of seven machine learning algorithms, namely, multivariable logistic regression (LR), K-nearest neighbour search (KNN), support vector classification (SVC), decision tree (DT), random forest classifier (RF), naïve Bayes classifier (NBC) and gradient booster tree (GB), was assessed based on accuracy, misclassification, recall, specificity, precision and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC). About 70% of patients were used as the training dataset, meanwhile remaining 30% as validation dataset.

    Results: 52 were ultimately diagnosed with prostate cancer following the final pathological examination. The remaining 122 patients were negative. Amongst six feature selection methods, the variable ranking emerged as the most effective method for identifying the essential factors influencing repeat biopsy results. Amongst the machine learning algorithms, SVC demonstrated superior accuracy (0.7365), low recall rate (0.2500) and low misclassification rate (0.2093) for both patients with cancer and healthy individuals. Meanwhile, the ROC curve of SVC showed a relatively high AUC (0.6871).

    Conclusions: We developed an SVC-based machine learning algorithm for predicting positive repeat prostate biopsy results. Our analysis revealed that initial and latest prostate volumes, initial and latest PSA levels, latest fPSA/PSA ratio and age are significant factors for this model.

  • Article
    Zeki Bayraktar, Cahit Şahin, Salih Yıldırım, Yavuz Karaca, Orhun Sinanoğlu
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 504-510. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.62
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    Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa) in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Materials and Methods: Between January 2018 and December 2022, MetS was investigated according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria in men who underwent prostate biopsy with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Clinicopathological factors such as, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), age, blood pressure, testosterone, lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose level, C-reactive protein (CRP) and MetS were analyzed.

    Results: A total of 908 men underwent biopsies, of which 492 (51.5%) had MetS according to ATP III criteria. The number of patients diagnosed with PCa in biopsy was 270 (29.7%). PCa cases were significantly older, with a lower prostate volume and a higher PSA value and higher blood pressure compared to patients without PCa (p < 0.001). 146 of 416 (35.0%) patients with MetS had PCa while 124 of 492 (25.2%) patients without MetS had PCa (p < 0.001). Out of 270 patients with PCa, 174 (64.4%) had Gleason score <7 and 96 (35.6%) had Gleason score ≥7. In patients with a Gleason score ≥7, PSA, DRE(+) and core positive number were significantly higher compared to patients with Gleason score <7, while glycemia and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age, PSA, positive DRE, prostate volume (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure, CRP and MetS were the only independent parameters associated with a higher risk of cancer on biopsy (p < 0.05).

    Conclusions: Our findings show that MetS is associated with PCa diagnosed on biopsy but not with the Gleason score and the number of cancer-positive cores. However, these results should be confirmed by larger, multicenter and prospective studies.

  • Article
    Xiaoping Zhang, Quan Liu
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 511-518. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.63
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    Objective: To explore the effect of combining the preoperative systemic immune inflammation index (SII) and T-staging to predict the prognosis of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

    Methods: The clinical data of 94 MIBC patients who met the inclusion criteria of our hospital from September 01, 2012, to August 31, 2022, were collected. Data included sex, age, smoking history, tumour size, tumour number, pathology, P-grading, T-staging, SII, and overall survival (OS). The optimal cut-off of SII (863.62) was selected by obtaining the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Then, the samples were divided into the low-SII group (SII <863.62, 51 cases) and the high-SII group (SII ≥863.62, 43 cases). T-staging could be divided into T2 (61 cases) and T3 and higher stages (33 cases) according to the findings on depth of tumour invasion. Furthermore, the role of combined SII and T-staging for prognosis prediction was evaluated by performing Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling in the OS analysis.

    Results: MIBC patients with higher SII (≥863.62) were associated with shorter OS (p = 0.00005). Patients with more advanced T-stages had shorter OS than those with early T-stages (p = 0.00006). Furthermore, patients who had both higher SII and more advanced T-stages had markedly shorter OS (p = 0.00001).

    Conclusions: In patients with MIBC, a higher SII and increasing T-stage indicate a worse prognosis and shorter OS. Therefore, the combined SII and T staging approach is a reliable prognostic predictor for patients with MIBC.

  • Article
    Vlad Horia Schitcu, Nucu-Alexandru Marica, Mihnea Bogdan Borz
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 519-524. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.64
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    Background: Ureterolysis represents the surgical treatment for retroperitoneal fibrosis. The aim of the study was to review the outcomes of patients who had undergone radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy for cervical cancer that later developed retroperitoneal fibrosis, for whom 3D laparoscopic ureterolysis was performed in our department and to review current published studies.

    Methods: We present a series of cases consisting of 6 patients with secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis. In all cases, the intervention was performed by the same surgeon from the Oncological Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuță” Cluj-Napoca, Romania. We carried out a literature review, searching in the PubMed and MEDLINE studies published between 2000 and 2021 relevant to the matter and a total of 12 papers were selected. We reviewed the functional outcomes of patients that underwent minimally invasive ureterolysis.

    Results: 3D laparoscopic ureterolysis was performed in 6 patients. Mean operative time was 166 minutes and mean blood loss was 203 mL. No surgery required conversion. Five patients showed good functional results after ureteral stent removal. In one case, the patient developed acute pyelonephritis and the ureteral stents were kept.

    Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolysis for retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to operated and radiation-treated cervical cancer represents one of the most complex and challenging surgeries in the urological field. From personal experience we conclude that in oncological centers with vast experience in laparoscopy this minimally invasive approach is feasible and safe. Published data, even though scarce, strengthens our results and the need for this surgery in patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis with urological impact. The laparoscopic approach comes with good functional results and with the advantages of faster post-operative recovery comparing to open surgery and comparable results with the precision and dexterity offered by the robotic approach, but with lower economic burden.

  • Article
    Jun Xie, Min Liu, Jun Ma
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 525-531. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.65
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    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of multidisciplinary assessment in paediatric patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE).

    Methods: From July 2018 to June 2021, 242 patients with enuresis who received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital were retrospectively enrolled. They were divided into the multidisciplinary assessment group (n = 130) and routine assessment group (n = 112). Multidisciplinary assessments were completed by a multidisciplinary team, and the data included structured medical history, physical and neurological examinations, bladder and bowel diaries, sleep diaries, questionnaires, psychological assessments, urinary ultrasonography, blood and urine laboratory tests, polysomnography and balance assessments.

    Results: A higher proportion of patients with enuresis associated with other conditions was identified in the multidisciplinary assessment group than in the routine assessment group (27.7% vs 15.2%, p = 0.019). With regard to treatment response to the enuresis alarm, the treatment response rate was 52.9% (17/33) in the conventional assessment group, whereas such a response was significantly higher in the multidisciplinary assessment group (82.1%, 32/39; p = 0.028). Compared with the routine assessment group, the multidisciplinary assessment group had a significantly higher treatment response rate for desmopressin (83.3% vs 52.0%; p = 0.022) and alarms combined with desmopressin (74.2% vs 44.4%; p = 0.045). After treatment, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) score in the multidisciplinary assessment group was significantly higher than that in the routine assessment group (91.9 ± 6.3 vs 87.1 ± 7.3; p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Multidisciplinary evaluation can identify more children with enuresis caused by other diseases, which promotes the differential diagnosis of MNE. In addition, multidisciplinary assessment can determine the appropriate treatment response in children with MNE.

  • Article
    Qiannan Zhao, Jianfeng Shi, Yujuan Wu, Min Zhang, Shuyun Zheng, Xiaohua Wang
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 532-537. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.66
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    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical value of the combination detection of captopril renal scintigraphy (CRS) and plasma renin activity (PRA) in the diagnosis of renal hypertension (RHR).

    Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 163 patients with suspected RHR admitted to our hospital from March 2019 to March 2021, and all patients underwent blood pressure, CRS and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The patients were divided into the positive group (n = 100) and the negative group (n = 63) in accordance with the results of DSA examination. PRA, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels of the two groups were detected and compared. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyse the CRS, PRA and combined diagnostic performance.

    Results: The uptake ratio value after captopril intervention in the positive group was 36.71% ± 8.79%, which was significantly lower than that in the negative group (56.79% ± 10.09%, p < 0.05). The serum PRA level of the positive group was 4.70 ± 1.67 ng/mLꞏh, which was distinctly higher than that of the negative group (2.12 ± 1.03 ng/mLꞏh, p < 0.05). The sensitivity and Youden index under the combination detection (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.956, p < 0.001) were all higher than those under single detection.

    Conclusion: The combined detection of PRA and CRS can provide considerable evidence for the early diagnosis and treatment of RHR, which has a certain clinical value.

  • Article
    Lin Zhang, Liping Liu, Leina Zhao, Xinmei Yuan, Yun Wang, Jing Yang
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2023, 76(7): 538-547. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20237607.67
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    Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bushen Yiqi Fuzheng decoction combined with sunitinib on the prognosis, clinical efficacy and immune function of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after surgery.

    Methods: A total of 120 patients who experienced RCC after surgery were randomly divided into the observation and control groups in this prospective study, with 60 cases in each group. The therapeutic effect, improvement of clinical symptoms, changes of immune function-related indicators and adverse reactions during medication were recorded. The changes in immune cell population, midkine (MK), interleukin 35 (IL-35), hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), osteopontin (OPN), ferritin (FERR) and beta2-microglobulin (β2-MG) levels were measured. The Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of patients was recorded.

    Results: The total effective rate of the observation group (95%) was better than that of the control group (85%, p < 0.05). After treatment, the changes of immune function indexes in the control group were not obvious. The indexes related to immune function in the observation group significantly decreased. Significant differences were observed in the cluster of differentiation 3+ (CD3+), cluster of differentiation 4+ (CD4+), cluster of differentiation 8+ (CD8+) and CD4+/CD8+ between the two groups after treatment. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was lower than that of the control group. The KPS of the observation group was higher than that of the control group. Before treatment, no differences were observed in the MK, IL-35, HIF-2α, CEA, OPN, FERR, β2-MG, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels between the two groups. After treatment, the levels of the above parameters were lower than those before treatment, especially in the observation group.

    Conclusions: Bushen Yiqi Fuzheng decoction combined with sunitinib can significantly improve the clinical efficacy and postoperative immune function of RCC patients after surgery and down-regulate MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels in the serum, which is beneficial to the prognosis of patients.