OBJECTIVE: Thulium laser vaporization of the prostate (TL-PVP) has been performed for almost 10 years. However, there are very few studies focused on high power (150 W) applications. Published sources have short follow-up periods, few cases and small prostatic volumes. In this study, we present an analysis of the safety and efficacy of this technique in the mediumterm (42 months follow-up) perspective.METHODS: Data from 235 patients that underwent TL-PVP from March 2011 to November 2013 has been collected, including prostatic size, intraoperative variables, IPSS, Qmax, and PSA, among others. RESULTS: Mean age was 69±9 years. Mean prostatic size was 62±28 ml. The average IPSS score and Qmax were 18±16 and 7.6 ± 3.5 ml/s, respectively. Mean hospital stay was 24±17 h. Mean time with urethral catheter was 38 h. Only 26.1% of the patients had perioperative complications but none of the cases was higher than a Clavien III. From this population, no more than 1.7% required readmission. Mean postoperative Qmax after 3 and 24 months was 19±6 ml/s and 17±8 ml/s. IPSS was 5±5 points. A successful outcome was achieved in 81.3% of the patients. Obstructive symptoms persisted in 15.7% of the population and 3% resulted in filling-phase dysfunction. Reoperation rate was 5%.The only statistically significant difference (p=0.008) between successful and unsuccessful outcomes occurred in prostatic size, where mean values calculated were 59.73 ml and 71.82 ml, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, high power TL-PVP is a safe and effective alternative with subjective and objective functional results that are comparable to the “gold standard” technique. It also offers a shorter hospital stay and a lower complication rate
OBJECTIVE: To analyze prognostic variables that impact on the trial without catheter after tamsulosin in patients with acute urine retention.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of a cohort of successive patients with acute urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia attended at the urology emergency room during one year time period. We analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics and the international prostatic symptom score questionnaire of a total 65 male patients.RESULTS: The trial without catheter after tamsulosin showed positive results in 25 patients (38%) and failed in the remaining 40 (62%). In multivariate analysis, none of the analyzed variables resulted in an independent predictive factor for spontaneous micturition after the trial without catheter. However, the severe IPSS (p=0.085) presented an important statistical tendency for predicting failure of spontaneous micturition, as well as we found that the 84% of diabetic patients presented failure to the trial with catheter.CONCLUSIONS: The only variable that impact negatively on the trial without catheter was the severe IPSS with an approximation to statistical significance. The presence of diabetes as a related factor is a hypothesis that should be investigated with a higher number of cases.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to classify and describe the different types of complications of radical prostatectomy, their frequency of appearance, as well as the different factors that may influence their development.METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out, based on the search of published articles between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS: Laparoscopic or robotic radical prostatectomy may require conversion into open surgery, and these cases are significantly associated with longer hospital stay and greater rate of complications. Vascular damage comprises from injuries to small and medium caliber vessels (Santorini plexus or epigastric vessels) to possible lesions of large vessels (iliac), although they are infrequent. The most common nerve injury is that of the obturator nerve, which can be treated in the case of a complete section, and in incomplete lesions, damage is usually reversible. Intestinal injury is one of the most serious complications because it could be lifethreatening. Rectal injury is a complication that needs a correct diagnosis and intraoperative treatment, since it may lead to the development of a secondary rectourethral fistula. Such fistulae in most cases require surgical treatment. Lymphocele is a characteristic complication of radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy, requiring treatment only in cases of complication. Anastomotic leakage is a frequent complication, and a prognostic factor for the later development of anastomosis stricture. Some of the factors that seem to influence the development of complications are associated comorbidity, anatomical factors, surgical approach and surgical experience, among others.CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to know the potential complications of radical prostatectomy, as well as the associated risk factors, in order to avoid their appearance.
OBJECTIVES: To move towards a more standardized approach in clinical practice to manage patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Spain. METHODS: A panel of 18 Spanish experts in Urology with expertise managing CRPC followed a modified Delphi process with two rounds and a final face-to-face consensus meeting. The panel considered a total of 106 clinical questions divided into the following 6 sections: definition of CRPC, diagnosis of metastases by imaging techniques, symptoms of CRPC, progression of CRPC, M0 and M1 management and therapeutic sequencing. RESULTS: A bone scan (BS) is recommended at diagnosis, at the onset of bone pain, and depending on PSA levels, but it is not sensitive enough to confirm or exclude bone metastases if there is bone pain. Whole-body MRI and axial MRI are more sensitive than BS and plain X-rays, but more expensive, so they have to be used in certain situations. There is CRPC progression when there is radiologic, clinical or confirmed PSA progression. Flare phenomenon appears in treatment with taxanes and abiraterone. It was agreed that in M0 CRPC patients no drug treatment is currently recommended, although in M1 CRPC patients the first-line therapy would be mainly enzalutamide/abiraterone and/or docetaxel, depending on the symptom burden. CONCLUSION: After the consensus, we provide a series of recommendations for Spanish physicians treating CRPC to address the disease characteristics,how to tailor patient management decisions, the use of imaging techniques, and how to handle disease progression appropriately to improve patients’ quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: Two cases of metanephricadenoma are presented, a rare benign renal tumor,and a literature review is done under the current WHOclassification (2016).METHODS: Standard histopathological study wasperformed with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistryto analyze the expression of WT, Vimentin, Racemase,CK7, CD10 and RCC.RESULTS: Neoplasms of 3 and 4.5 cm, histologically,exhibiting tubulopapillary architecture. There was noevidence of significant nuclear atypia and mitoticfigures. Immunohistochemical study showed positiveimmunoreaction for WT1 and Vimentin in tumor cells.CONCLUSIONS: Two new cases of metanephricadenoma are presented and a review of the literaturewas performed in order to discuss the prognosis anddifferential diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. This is arare tumor and its diagnosis lies on its morphology and itsimmunohistochemical profile.
OBJECTIVE: We introduce two cases of a 46 and 66-year-old patient, both diagnosed with pelvic neurofibroma (One located in a seminal vesicle, the other in the bladder). The first patient had been diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis type 1 while the other was diagnosed with a sporadic neurofibroma. METHODS: During a study for lower urinary tract symptoms referred, these patients were diagnosed seminal vesicle and bladder neurofibroma, respectively, using image and histological tests. RESULTS: The histopathological and inmunohistochemical characteristics of these benign tumors gave the definitive diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic neurofibromas are a rare entity in this anatomical location. They can be associated with Neurofibromatosis type 1 or not. We get to their diagnosis by an anatomopathological study. Conservative management is the usual procedure, being mandatory a clinical follow-up that must be coupled with image tests.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative alprazolam medication on anxiety and pain in flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up.METHODS: A total of 86 male patients who had flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up at 6th and 9th months were included in the study. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. The 6th (VAS-1) and 9th (VAS-2) month pain scores and 6th month STAI score (STAI-1) and, 9th month STAI score before (STAI-2a) and after alprazolam (0.5 mg) intake (STAI-2b) were compared. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.49±12.45 years. Patients were grouped by age≤65 (Group-1) and age≥66 (Group-2). Mean VAS score for VAS-1 and VAS-2 were 2.66±0.96 and 2.44±1.05, respectively (p=0.007). The mean VAS-1 and VAS-2 scores in Group 1 were 3.0±1.05 and 2.73±1.18, respectively (p=0.009). The mean VAS-1 and VAS-2 scores in Group 2 were 2.36±0.77 and 2.17±0.86 respectively (p=0.031). The differences between mean anxiety scores were all statistically significant. All STAI (1, 2a, and 2b) and VAS (1 and 2) scores in Group-1 were statistically significantly higher than Group-2. Increasing STAI score is associated with a statistically significant increase in the VAS scores in the 0.50 and 0.75 quantiles (p=0.021 and p=0.039, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Using alprazolam before flexible cystoscopy reduces both anxiety (STAI-1 vs STAI-2b) and pain (VAS-1 vs VAS-2). Previous cystoscopy experience reduces anxiety (STAI-2a vs. STAI-2b). Elderly patients have less anxiety and pain scores than younger patients in flexible cystoscopy.