OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of dietary supplement “Manosar®” composed of D-mannose (2 g), 24 h prolonged release, associated with Proanthocyanidin (PAC) (140 mg), ursolic acid (7.98 mg), A, C, and D vitamins and the oligoelement zinc, versus 240 mg of PAC in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), for a designed follow-up of 24 weeks, in women.METHODS: A multicenter randomized experimental double-blind study was carried out. The study was approved by review board of “Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo” (Spain), and all patients gave informed consent. A total of 150 women with non complicated UTI were screened for participation. Valid data was obtained from 93, with mean age of 48 years. Fortyfour patients were assigned to the Manosar® group and 51 patients to the PAC group. Patients were followed during six months. A previous UTI was defined based on a combination of symptoms and a positive reactive urine trip. Confirmation of a new UTI was based on symptoms, reactive urine strip and urine culture.RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (35%) had an UTI during the six months follow-up. The percentage of UTI of the Manosar® group during this period was 24%, while the percentage of the PAC group was 45% (p<0.05). The disease-free time for the Manosar® group was 95 days, while this time was 79 days for the PAC group. The incidence of side effects was low. Diarrhea was the most frequent side-effect in both groups.CONCLUSION: Manosar® (oral once a day) is more effective than single dose PAC (240 mg daily orally) to prevent recurrent UTI in women.
Objective: The enhanced recovery after surgery program (ERAS) has become the base of perioperative management in various surgical specialties. However, limited data are available for radical cystectomy. Methods: We have analyzed 124 patients undergoing radical cystectomy. For retrospective analysis, the patients were divided into two groups:Group A (n=72) included patients whose surgery was performed before the introduction of the ERAS protocol; and Group B (n=52) included patients who were treated following the items included in the ERAS protocol. The main objective was to assess the length of hospital stay and the permanence in intensive care units (ICU). Other variables were the use of intraoperative blood products, fluid-therapy and medical and surgical complications. Results: Hospital and ICU stay were significantly shorter (p〈0.001) in Group B for patients following the ERAS protocol, which led to reduce 7 hospitalization days and 25.7 hours of overall ICU stay. Regarding fluid replacement following the ERAS protocol, our study showed a statistically significant reduction in the total amount of fluid administered, both crystalloids and colloids, in Group B (p〈0.001). The need of blood transfusion was also lower in Group B with a statistically significant difference (p〈0.001). No statistical differences were observed regarding the incidence of surgical complications. Conclusions: Introduction of ERAS protocol in radical cystectomy decreases the length of hospital stay, permanence in critical care units, and the need for fluidtherapy and blood product transfusion. However, more and larger studies are needed to prove the efficacy of ERAS for patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of lycopene intake in primary prevention of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in March 2015 and the articles published between the years 1990-2015 were reviewed. The following search terms were used: prostate cancer, prostatic neoplasm, lycopene, prevention, effectiveness and efficacy (MeSH). Publications including research in humans, written in English and whose texts were accessible were reviewed. The types of studies included were: clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies. We found 343 articles; of these, 27 were included in the systematic review. After the latter were rigorously analyzed, 23 were included in the meta-analysis using the pooled odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) of case-control and cohort studies, respectively, and their confidence intervals (95% CI), using random-effects models with Review Manager 5.2. RESULTS: Out of the 27 articles included in the systematic review, 22 were case-control and 5 were cohort studies. For the case-control studies, the total number of patients with PCa was 13,999 and the total number of controls 22,028. Cohort studies included 187,417 patients and PCa was diagnosed in 8,619 of these. The metaanalysis determined an OR = 0.94 (IC 95% 0.89-1.00) and RR = 0.9 (IC 95% 0.85-0.95) of PCa related with lycopene and/or raw or cooked tomatoes intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although our study found that there is a statistically significant inverse association between lycopene intake and PCa, the magnitude of this association is weak and comes solely from observational studies, which do not allow recommending its use as a standard of practice. High-quality randomized clinical trials are required to clarify current evidence.
Objective: Kidney tumors represent 2- 3% of adult tumors. Partial nephrectomy is the standard of care for the treatment of localized tumors. Minimizing ischemia time is critical for postoperative renal function. The aim of this paper is to present our experience in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with selective renal parenchymal compression using the Simon clamp. Methods: We analyzed the record of patients that underwent surgery for renal tumors between January 2011 and June 2016 at our institution. Cases treated conwith this technique were selected. Demographic variables, operative, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results: 323 nephrectomies were performed and 18 cases treated with this technique were analyzed. Average age was 56.27 years (34- 75) with 10 female cases. BMI was 25.01 kg/m2 (21.2- 34.3). 17 cases were lower pole and one upper pole with 11 right and 7 left. Average surgical time was 83.25 minutes (43- 120); renal ischemia time was 21.36 minutes (12- 40) with an estimated blood loss of 91 ml (0- 400). Average tumor diameter was 2.6 cm (1.8 to 5.3). Glomerular filtration rate preoperative and immediate postoperative was 83 ml/min and 87 ml/min (p=0.42) respectively. Average length of stay was 2.75 days (1- 7). All cases had negative margins. With a mean follow up of 23.1 months (1- 58) no recurrences were observed. Conclusions: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy using the Simon clamp for vascular control is a feasible technique for selected cases with polar exophytic tumors. Immediate postoperative glomerular filtration rate showed no significant changes and oncological control in our experience was satisfactory.
OBJECTIVE: We report 2 cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (CCP) of the urinary bladder in patients aged 37 and 80 years. CCP is a malignancy with poor prognosis. We review the literature, under the current WHO classification (2016). METHODS: Paraffin blocks were cut for HE staining and immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of neuroendocrine differentiation. RESULTS: The main diagnosis was based on histopathologic features, which revealed a diffuse growth pattern of small cells with scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. The result of the additional technical immunoreaction was positive for synaptophysin and CD56. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases have been reviewed with the literature to discuss the evolution and differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. This is a rare tumor with very aggressive behavior and its diagnosis lies in its morphology, and immunohistochemical profile.
OBJECTIVE: We present the case of a patient incidentally diagnosed with a pelvic mass next to the bladder. After surgical excision, definitive diagnosis was pseudomyxoma peritonei. We provide a concise review of the literature of this pathology. METHODS: A 55 year-old male patient, was found to have, in annual routine ultrasound, a pelvic retrovesical mass. CT guided needle aspirate showed a tumor with myxoid changes and low aggressive cytology. Surgical excision was performed. RESULTS: The excised mass contained the cecal appendix and ileal serosa. Pathology report was: mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei.
OBJECTIVES: The most important treatment strategy for obstructive nephropathy is to protect renal tissue from the deleterious effects of fibrosis. Therefore, we sought to investigate the renoprotective effects of darbepoetin alfa on unilateral ureteral obstructions. METHODS: We used 12 female and 12 male 3-month-old Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 350 g. The rats were divided equally into sham, darbepoetin and control groups. With the exception of the sham group, left unilateral obstructions were applied to all of the rats. The darbepoetin group received perioperative darbepoetin alfa at a dose of 10 µg/kg. The rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and 3-cc blood amples and bilateral renal specimens were collected from each rat. RESULTS: Renal ectasia was observed significantly less frequently in the darbepoetin group than the obstruction group (p<0.001). Additionally, the uptake rates of cortical TNF and medullary SMA in the darbepoetin group were comparable to those in the sham group but lower than those in the ureteral obstruction group (p<0.001 and p<0.008, respectively). When biomarkers of renal injury, including cystatin-C, malondialdehyde, and B2 microglobulin, were evaluated in combination, B2 microglobulin was found at higher levels in the ureteral obstruction group (p<0.004). CONCLUSION: As we know pelvicalyceal ectasia reflects intrapelvic pressure into renal tubular system via renal reflux. Therefore pelvicalyceal ectasia can be used as an indicator of renal tubular pressure. Although as a limitation of our study, renal tubular pressure was not quantitatively evaluated, parallelism between levels of renal ectasia detected in the rats of the sham, and DPO groups can predict that this drug (darbepoetin-α) can decrease renal tubular pressure in acute ureteral obstruction. Moreover, B2 microglobulin levels in the sham, and DPO groups differed from those of ureteral obstruction group, which suggested that DPO does not impair renal perfusion in addition to its decreasing effects on renal tubular pressure. We think that in countries with higher incidence rates of stone disease similar to our country, DPO may be used among medical treatment alternatives, which aim to preserve renal reserve.