OBJECTIVE: The effects of pyeloplasty on renal function are not fully well defined. Our objective is to determine if renal function and renal dilation change after pyeloplasty and the risk factors that may influence in both parameters.METHODS: Retrospective study of patients who underwent pyeloplasty. The parameters analyzed included: age, differential renal function, renal dilation, infection and complications. We compared ultrasound findings with measurement of the anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (mm) and the time/activity upload curve of the 99mTc- Mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography before and after surgery. Patients were divided in groups by renal function: bad (<20%), diminished (20-40%), normal (40-55%) and supranormal (>55%).RESULTS: A total of 129 patients were included in the study. The normal renal function group was the one undergoing surgery most frequently. Comparison of function before and after surgery showed a statistically significant improvement when preoperative function was bad (<20%) (mean 9.2+/-8.9) or supranormal (>55%) (mean -8.7+/-8.5). In the subgroup of patients under 12 months, it was notable there were significant results only when renal function was diminished (20-40%) (mean 5.6+/-2.2). Renal dilation presented significant changes after surgery in all groups (mean 5.6+/-2.2) (p<0.0001), except in cases presenting complications.CONCLUSIONS: Previous renal function has prognostic value on pieloplasty results. Supranormal renal function should be considered pathologic, but recoverable and it may improve after pieloplasty. In the absence of intra or postoperative complications, pyelocalycial dilation diminished after pieloplasty.
OBJECTIVE: Female urinary incontinence has a prevalence of up to 40%. Stress urinary incontinence is the most frequent type, about 50%. When primary management fails, it is unclear what the behavior should be. This study aims to show the cure rate of the second-line management options described in the literature.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis of proportions. Observational and interventional studies were included in which the different types of management of recurrent/persistent urinary incontinence were evaluated in women who had a mid-urethral tape as primary management.RESULTS: 161 studies were identified and screened, including 29 in the qualitative synthesis and 27 in the quantitative synthesis. Given the high clinical and methodological heterogeneity, an estimation of the cure rate for each type of management was performed, with the following results regarding the total combined cure rate: in the implantation of adjustable tapes of 86% ( IC95%: 76.4% -92.1%), the implantation of a second mid urethral tape was 75.1% (95% CI: 68% -81.1%), in the shortening of the previous mid urethral tape was 62.3% (95% CI: 49.1% -73.9%) and finally the implantation of bulking agents was 55.4% (95% CI: 43.2% -67%). We did not find enough studies to perform a quantitative synthesis with respect to: pubovaginal sling, colposuspension and pelvic floor therapy, as well as secondary outcomes.CONCLUSION: The evidence found shows that there may be superiority of the adjustable tapes versus the mid urethral tapes and other included treatments. However, a comparison to statistically corroborate this difference could not be made. These results should be confirmed with multicenter collaborative randomized clinical trials.
OBJECTIVES: To describe a roadmap of the most representative milestones and considerations in the validation of surgical simulators, especially those of laparoscopic surgery. And additionally, help determine when in this process a simulator can be considered as validated.METHODS: A non-systematic review was carried out searching terms like simulation, validation, training, assessment, skills and learning curve, as well as providing the experience accumulated by our center. RESULTS: An ideal classical validation process should consist of the following steps: fidelity, verification/calibration/reliability, subjective and objective strategies. Baseline tests of fidelity and verification/calibration/technological reliability are not always detailed in the simulation literature. A simulator can be considered validated if, at least, satisfactorily completed any of the two main objective strategies, that is, constructive and/or criterion validity.CONCLUSIONS: The methodologies to validate simulators as useful and reliable for the improvement of psychomotor/technical skills are widely analyzed, although there is a variety of approaches depending on the scientific reference consulted, not being implemented equally in all works. This apparent arbitrariness should be considered in advance because it can lead the researcher to misunderstandings, especially when the simulator will be regarded as valid.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of incidental prostate cancer in patients after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, as well as its impact in terms of overall survival and biochemical recurrence.METHODS: Patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy in our hospital between 1998 and 2014 were included in the study. None of the patients had previous history of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Complete embedding of the prostate gland as whole mount serial section of the radical cystectomy specimens was done.RESULTS: 180 patients were included. The mean age was 69.71 years with a median follow-up of 34.2 months. Three groups were analyzed: non-incidental prostate cancer (n=136), non-significant incidental prostate cancer (n=28) and significant incidental prostate cancer (n=16). During follow-up, 50 patients (27.78%) died from bladder cancer. There were no differences in overall survival between patients with or without prostate cancer, neither between patients with significant nor insignificant prostate cancer in the radical cystectomy specimens. Biochemical recurrence was not observed in any patient.CONCLUSIONS: Incidental prostate cancer had a higher prevalence than previously expected in our cohort (24.4%), but it had no impact in overall survival of patients not even in those with a significant prostate cancer. No biochemical recurrence was reported during the study.
OBJECTIVES: Mesorenal tumors (those located in the renal middle line or between both poles) are complex cases for partial nephrectomy (PN). Our objective is to evaluate oncological and perioperative results of PN in these patients with mesorenal tumors greater than 4 cm, mesophytic or endophytic.METHODS: A review of the medical records of patients with tumors with these characteristics operated between January 2016 and June 2016 was performed.RESULTS: 36 cases were included. The mean age was 54.2 years (24-79) with 12 cases of male gender. Mean surgical time: 139 minutes (120-280); 30 cases with complete clamping with mean ischemia of 19 minutes (10-90) and 6 compression of the parenchyma. Mean estimated bleeding: 280 ml (100-900). Mean tumor diameter: 4.3 cm (4.0 to 7.6). Preoperative and postoperative mean glomerular filtration rate 89 ml/min and 76 ml/min (p=0.32) respectively. Median length of stay: 3.8 days (2-21). There were 2 (6.5%) complications (II and IIIb). One case (3.3%) presented positive margin. One patient died due to progression at 14 months. With a median follow-up of 52.1 months (10-168) no recurrences were observed.CONCLUSIONS: We consider that mesorenal tumors, with significant penetration within the renal parenchyma and greater than 4 cm, PN presents both oncological and satisfactory results.
OBJECTIVES: We aim to present and analyze the long term results of descending transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy (TLN) technique (Tunc technique).METHODS: A total of 308 patients that underwent descending TLN were included to the study between January 2011 and March 2018. Mean operation time, mean estimated blood loss, duration of hospital stay, complications, mean tumor size, and pathologic margin status were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 308 patients underwent the descending TLN technique. Mean tumor size was 6.5±1.83 (range 3.5-12 cm). Mean intraoperative estimated blood loss was 38±6.91mL. Mean operation time was 24.97±6.8 minutes. Duration of hospital stay was1.85±0.69 days. Only one patient received postoperative blood transfusion for chronic anemia. Two of the patients had endoGIA stapler malfunction. None of the patients required conversion to open surgery intraoperative. There was no positive margin status.CONCLUSIONS: We could prove the safety and effectiveness of descending TLN technique. The main advantages of descending TLN over traditional ascending nephrectomy technique are shorter operation time and hospital stay.
OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided unilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block when used in combination with oral diclofenac administration during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). DESIGN AND SETTING: The study is a retrospective clinical experimental study conducted in a university hospital between January 2017 and January 2018. METHODS: 42 SWL eligible patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n: 15) received no medication due to patient’s preference. Group 2 (n: 15) received 50 mg oral diclofenac 30 minutes prior to the procedure, and Group 3 (n: 12) received both oral diclofenac and unilateral ultrasound (US) guided TAP block 30 minutes before the procedure. Patient`s characteristics, SWL data and “visual analogue pain scale” (VAS) scores were collected and compared between groups.RESULTS: A total of 44 eligible patients were included in the study. When compared between groups, patient’s characteristics including age, body mass index, and SWL data including stone size, SWL number, total energy transmitted and duration of the procedure, were similar and there was no statistical significance. Between groups statistical significance was achieved in only VAS scores. Mean VAS scores in groups 1,2, and 3 were 6.3 ± 1.8, 4.3 ± 2.3, and 1.3 ± 1.0, respectively. No complication was seen in any of the groups.CONCLUSION: Pain relief during SWL operations is still a challenging issue for many clinicians. Our study demonstrates that, among many other anesthetic/analgesic agents and techniques described, unilateral US guided TAP block and diclofenac combination is a feasible option for pain relief during SWL procedures.
During their journey through the female reproductive tract to reach the oocyte in the ampulla of the fallopian tube, spermatozoa interact with substances and microorganisms that affect sperm quality, thus altering their fertilizing capacity.OBJECTIVES: To determine in vitro the effect of Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and their soluble factors on sperm parameters, and to evaluate the ability of human sperm to interact with and transport these bacteria. METHODS: The effects of S. agalactiae, K. pneumoniae and their soluble factors on the viability, sperm motility and functional sperm parameters were quantified. In addition, motile spermatozoa were incubated with decreasing concentrations of bacteria for one hour, washed and post-infection treatments were performed with trypsin and transport capacity was assessed by quantitative cultures.RESULTS: Incubation of spermatozoa with K. pneumoniae decreased progressive motility. The soluble factors of K. pneumoniae increased the number of necrotic spermatozoa and the soluble factors of S. agalactiae increased lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane (p<0.05). A strong interaction between sperm and bacteria was observed in the transport assays even in washed trypsin-treated samples.CONCLUSION: Human spermatozoa act as vectors for infections, generating strong interactions with K. pneumoniae and S. agalactiae favoring their diffusion through the female reproductive tract. This interaction affects male fertility by altering progressive motility, increasing the number of necrotic cells and inducing apoptosis.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive value of osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels for jaw osteonecrosis in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients taking bisphosphonates (BPs).METHODS: Twenty-four patients were prospectively recruited in this study and followed from 2011 to 2015. All patients were diagnosed with metastatic PCa with secondary bone deposits and were on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). All participants were started on 4mg of zoledronic acid intravenously every 4 weeks for two years. The patients were reviewed every three months with full blood count, blood biochemistry, PSA and measurement of OC and CTX. Patients also underwent dental/oral examination. OC and CTX levels in serum were calculated using the ELISA method.RESULTS: A significant decrease in PSA levels was found (β=-0.06, SE=0.02, p=0.006). The levels of OC (β=-0.46, SE=0.14, p=0.001) and CTX (β=-0.01, SE=0.004, p=0.007) also decreased significantly during the two years of follow up. Osteonecrosis of the jaw was identified in three patients at two years. Patients with osteonecrosis also showed a decrease in OC and CTX levels. The mean OC reduction was 77.3% for patients with osteonecrosis and 12.6% for patients without osteonecrosis. The mean CTX reduction was 44.1% for patients with osteonecrosis and 9.62% for patients without osteonecrosis.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated no clear association between the levels of serum OC and CTX and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). To date, there is no clinically useful biomarker for the prediction of jaw osteonecrosis. More studies are needed using different bone turnover markers in order to identify patients at risk for BRONJ.
OBJECTIVE: Unusual intrascrotal lesions in adults generally have been described as case reports in the medical literature. We present two lesions observed in two clinics over more than 28 years, with their radiological, pathological and clinical characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective study preformed between 1989 and 2017 in 446 patients undergoing inguinal orchiectomy. Clinical data were obtained reviewing patient`s tables. All patients were evaluated with physical examination, medical history, serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, beta human chorionic gonadotropin, LDH), and scrotal ultrasound in the perioperative period. RESULTS: In 396 cases (88,78%) the diagnosis was germ cell or non-germ cell tumor and the remainder 50 patients (11.2%) presented 15 different intrascrotal lesions. These lesions were rhabdomyosarcoma (1 patient), intrascrotal cavernous hemangioma (1 patient), dermoid cyst (2 cases), epidermoid cyst (4 patients), paratesticular mesothelioma (1 case), parietal testicular tunica vaginalis cyst (2 patients), spermatic granuloma (3 cases). The number of patients with tuberculosis orchitis was 6 and granulomatous orchitis 8. There were 8 patients with fibrous pseudotumor. 1 patient presented testicular plasmocytoma. Metastatic involvement secondary to lymphoma and leukemia appeared in 4 cases. Brucella epididymitis-orchitis 7 cases. 2 cases of adult pure yolk sac testicular tumors. Additional evaluations and treatments were performed depending on histologic diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: The exact diagnosis of these lesions is difficult due to their rarity and they must always be considered for differential diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE: Stones are common mid- and long-term complications in urinary diversions built with bowel. However the reservoir intestinal loops can lead to difficult endoscopic approach.METHODS: We report two challenging cases with unfavourable anatomy successfully treated by gently handling a flexible cystoscope in a low pressure system.RESULTS: One patient with stones in a continent pouch was cleaned up with a grasping basket through the efferent umbilical limb. Another patient with an orthotopic ileal neobladder not accessible by rigid cystoscope due to high pelvic floor was treated with holmiun laser lithotripsy.CONCLUSIONS: Urologists should consider the versatility of flexible cystoscope to obviate the need for percutaneous lithotripsy or open lithotomy.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the presence of bladder foreign body as a rare complication following intraprostatic ethanol injection. CASE REPORTS A 71-year-old man and a 70-year-old male with bladder catheter probe due to obstructive benign prostatic enlargement underwent ethanol injection via transrectal echography. RESULTS: The first patient presented a urinary infection with acute urinary retention one year after the procedure. Ultrasonography revealed a 30 cc intravesical foreign body confirmed by urethrocystoscopy. Endoscopic treatment was unsuccessful, and the patient underwent cystotomy with retrieval of a soft, oval, brownish mass. Histological examination of the mass showed benign gland-stromal prostatic hyperplasia with extensive coagulative necrosis. The second patient had an acute urinary retention episode 3 months after surgery. The ultrasonography revealed an abnormal vesicoprostatic mass. Endoscopic treatment was successful, but required 2 sessions. Histological examination of the mass showed acute suppurative inflammation with marked autolysis of prostatic tissue. These foreign bodies in the bladder acted as a nest to promote infection, and generated a valve effect in the bladder neck, resembling a giant vesical lithiasis clinic, which was a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge since few centers worldwide manage this technique for prostatic hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the second report of a “calculus” or “foreign body” formed by prostatic tissue in the urinary tract after the injection of ethanol.
OBJECTIVE: To show and report two new cases of urological cutaneous metastasis.METHODS: We describe two skin metastases cases. The first patient corresponds to a renal tumor and the other to a urothelial tumor.RESULTS: 52-year-old female with stage IV renal tumor, which is treated with Sunitinib. 34 months later, she refers a jaw angle skin ulcer, considered metastasis.75-year-old male with stage IV mixed urothelial carcinoma, which is treated with cystoprostatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. 9 months later, he showed 5 skin lesions in his thorax. A core biopsy was diagnostic of urothelial cutaneous metastases.CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary skin metastasis are rare and have poor prognosis. The largest incidence is in renal tumors, followed by bladder and prostate malignancies.
OBJECTIVE: Metastatic involvement in the port site used to perform laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) is very infrequent.METHODS: We report the case of a patient with port site and peritoneal metastasis after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and salvage radiotherapy.RESULTS: 60-year-old male with a history of LRP due to Gleason score 7 (3+4) prostate adenocarcinoma with posterior salvage radiotherapy after biochemical recurrence. Appearance of metastatic lesion at one of the laparoscopic port site followed by third left rib and peritoneal metastasis, treated with local excision and subsequent hormonotherapy and chemotherapy (HT+QT).CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic extension of prostate adenocarcinoma at a port site after performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a highly exceptional situation. The elevation of PSA levels and image tests (PET-CT) help in the diagnosis. Histopathological confirmation must be performed using Fine Needle Aspiration(FNA). Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Adjuvant therapy (HT+QT) can help complete the treatment scheme.