28 June 2022, Volume 75 Issue 5

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  • Review
    Pedro Romero Pérez
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 382-399. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.56
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    Introduction and Objectives: Post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) is a little known adverse effect of 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) drugs used in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia. Five articles on the syndrome have been published in Spain, although no review has been published.The objectives of this article are to review the world literature, including the Spanish literature.

    Material and Methods: A retrospective review on post-finasteride syndrome was performed between 2011 and 2020. The search for information in PubMed/Medline was performed using the English terms "post-finasteride, post-finasteride syndrome" and in Google with the Spanish "post-finasteride, síndrome post-finasteride". The results of the variables studied were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

    Results: A total of 64 worldwide articles on post-finasteride syndrome were found, discarding 24 (37.5%) that did not deal with the symptoms of the syndrome, and 40 articles (62.5%) by 37 authors were included for study, corresponding to 29 publications on case series (72.5%) and 11 reviews (27.5%). Of the 40 articles, 37 referred to male post-finasteride syndrome (92.5%) and 3 to female (7.5%), the number of patients studied in the review was 87,887 corresponding to 87,224 men (99.2%) and 663 women (0.7%), with the number of articles on general symptoms being 23 (57.5%), male sexual symptoms 20 (50%) and female sexual symptoms 1 (2.5%). The articles came from 14 specialties, with Dermatology 14 publications (35%), Urology-Andrology 7 (17.5%) and Pharmacology 6 (15%). The countries with the highest number of publications were the USA 15 (37.5%), Italy 7 (17.5%) and Spain 5 (12.5%).

    Conclusions: Finasteride is rarely associated with sexual and systemic adverse effects that constitute the so-called post-finasteride syndrome. There are still few studies on this syndrome in the world. This is the first review of this syndrome in Spain.

  • Article
    Berat Cem Ozgur, Bugra Bilge Keseroglu
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 400-404. https://doi.org/10.37554/en-j.arch.esp.urol-20210704-3502-22
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    Introduction and Objectives: Although erectile dysfunction is frequently seen in hemodialysis patients, little information is documented about the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and almost all the articles evaluate sildenafil. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of chronic low dose tadalafil in this group of patients.

    Materials and Methods: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionairre was administered to patients under hemodialysis program. A total of 58 patients with ED (International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score < 26), each having a stable partner, between 18-60 years, receiving routine outpatient HD matched the inclusion criteria and divided into two equal groups; placebo and tadalafil 5 mg/3 days. Changes of the IIEF score was recorded after one month of treatment.

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.0±9.93 years. Duration of dialysis was 57.5(12-108) months. Hemoglobin (g/dl) and creatinin clearence (ml/Min) values of placebo and tadalafil groups were not significantly different; 10.9(8.8-14) vs 10.7(8.9-13) and 5.7±1.3 vs 6.0±1.4 respectively. There was a statistically significant increase for all subgroups related erectile dysfunction 9.28±4.17 vs 21.07±5.99 (p=0.037), intercourse satisfaction 8(3-9) vs 10(5-15) (p<0.001), orgasmic function 4(1-10) vs 8(4-10) (p<0.001), sexual desire 4(2-10) vs 7(3-9) (p<0.001) and general satisfaction 5(2-9) vs 6(2-9) (p<0.001) with low dose of tadalafil at the end of four weeks without any major side effects. There was only a significant increase in sexual desire 4(3-9) vs 6(4-10) (p<0.001),in placebo group with an insignificant change in all other IIEF domains. Total IIEF score of the placebo group was insignificantly increased from 21.13±7.73 to 21.99±7.04 (p=0.771) while there was a statistically significant increase in tadalafil group; from 20.87±8.84 to 30.75±7.04 (p<0.001).

    Conclusions: Tadalafil 5 mg once in three days is appear to be efficacious and well tolerated for the treatment of ED in hemodialysis patients.

  • Article
    Serdar Kalemci, Fuat Kizilay, Adnan Simsir, Kasım Emre Ergun, Timur Kose
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 405-409. https://doi.org/10.37554/en-j.arch.esp.urol-20210522-3503-23
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    Aim: The presence of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens correlates with adverse prognostic factors such as worse biochemical recurrence-free survival, higher grade and stage disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IDC-P in radical prostatectomy specimens on short-term oncological outcomes.

    Materials and methods: Patients who underwent RP at our clinic for prostate cancer between May 2016 and November 2019 were included in the study. They were divided into two groups based on the presence of IDC-P in RP specimens. Their clinical, pathological, and oncologic data were evaluated retrospectively.

    Results: A total of 98 patients underwent RP with a mean age of 65.5 years (50-83) and a mean follow-up time of 31.2 months (6-52). Seventy and 28 patients were evaluated in the group without IDC-P and group with IDC-P, respectively. Surgical margin positivity (p=0.307) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.017) rates were higher in the group with IDC-P. Although there were no statistical differences between the groups, at follow-up biochemical recurrence rate (p=0.052) was higher, and mean time to biochemical recurrence rates were lower (p=0.057) in the group with IDC-P. The group with IDC-P was associated with a 3-fold increase in prostate cancer-specific mortality to the group without IDC-P (p=0.037).

    Conclusions: Patients with IDC-P at RP specimens have more advanced disease, shorter biochemical recurrence-free, and cancerspecific survival than those without IDC-P. Defining the presence of IDC-P in RP specimens is critical in choosing the appropriate treatment strategy and predicting the prognosis.

  • Article
    Murat Yavuz Koparal, Tevfik Sinan Sözen, Nejdet Karşiyakali, Bülent Akdoğan, Haluk Özen, Güven Aslan, Levent Türkeri
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 410-415. https://doi.org/10.37554/en-j.arch.esp.urol-20210717-3506-26
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    Objective: To determine whether clinical or radiological parameters can predict clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) in patients with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3 lesions.

    Patients and Methods: Data were obtained from 247 patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions on mpMRI and who had received a software guided transperineal/transrectal MRI/transrectal ultrasonography (MRI/TRUS) fusion prostate biopsy with concomitant standard systematic 12-core biopsy following mpMRI in the prostate cancer and prostate biopsy database of Turkish Urooncology Association, between 2016 and 2020. The cut-off values of clinical parameters were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the clinical parameters in predicting csPC.

    Results: A total of 56 patients (22.6%) had prostate cancer, 23 (9.3%) of whom had csPC. In the lesion- based analysis, cancer detection rates (CDRs) of each lesion in targeted biopsy were found to be 6% and 5% for ISUP GG 1 and ISUP GG ≥ 2, respectively. In the patient-based analysis, clinically insignificant CDRs were significantly higher in systematic biopsy compared with targeted biopsy, whereas no significant difference was found in terms of clinically significant CDRs (p = 0.020 and p=0.422, respectively). The cut-off values were determined as 48.3 mL (AUC [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.53–0.82]) for prostate volume, and 0.213 ng/mL/mL (AUC [95% CI] = 0.64 (0.51–0.77]) for PSAD in predicting csPC. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only PSAD was found to be an independent risk factor in predicting csPC (OR [95% CI]: 3.56 [1.15–10.91], p = 0.024).

    Conclusion: Since PSAD > 0.20 ng/mL/mL was found to be positive independent risk factor in predicting csPC, in the absence of advanced radiological parameters, PSAD could be used for the biopsy decision in patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions.

  • Article
    Şeref Barbaros ARIK, Deniz GÜVENİR, Uğur BOZLAR, Mustafa TAŞAR, Bekir TURGUT
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 416-422. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.60
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    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common reason for cancer-related mortality in men. The purpose of cancer screening is to detect the disease at an early stage to help effective treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of MRI and PI-RADS in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and examine the relation between screening parameters with prostate cancer.

    Methods: The PACS system was analyzed and MRI images between September 2016 and April 2018 were listed. The state of patients regarding having pathology results were obtained. PSA values were listed. The prostate volume and the prostate density was calculated. PI-RADS assessment was used for each prostate lesion.

    Results: Data of 138 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 63±8.9. The mean prostate gland volume was 63.8±39.3ml, the mean PSA value was 12.51±25.22 and the mean PSA density was calculated as 0.319±0.945. A statistically significant difference was found between age and prostate volume and cancer. The age of the cancer cases was higher than those who did not have cancer (p<0.05). A negative correlation was found between prostate volume and cancer status. The prostate volume of non-cancer cases was higher compared to cancer cases (p=0.0001). 55 patients had no malignancy. It was observed that 56.4% of cancer patients had significant cancer. The frequency of using PI-RADS scores was 4% for P1, 36% for P2, 14% for P3, 28% for P4, and 18% for P5. Clinically significant cancer was present in 57.9% of patients with PI-RADS score4 and 69.6% of patients with PI-RADS score5. It was found that diagnostic values were significantly high for prostate cancer screening in patients with PI-RADS scores4 and 5 (Sensitivity 76.4%, Specificity 73.5%, Negative predictive value 82.4%, Positive predictive value 65.6%).

    Conclusion: PI-RADS and MRI can be useful for the diagnosis of the clinically significant prostate cancer in patients at risk for prostate cancer. It is a non-invasive, repeatable method for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. In prostate screening PSA reliability may be questioned. Additional methods are needed for the diagnosis. For this reason MRI and PI-RADSv2 is an effective predictor of prostate cancer in patients with high PSA levels.

  • Article
    Xuefeng Chang, Mingwei Xu, Li Ding, Xiao Wang, Yongqiang Du
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 423-429. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.61
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    Background: The clinical efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (FURL) in the treatment of calyceal diverticulum stones (CDs) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficacy of PCNL and FURL in the treatment of CDs.

    Methods: We searched a number of relevant electronic databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library until January 31, 2022. STATA 15.1 software was used to analyze all data for this article. The quality of these studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (ranged from 0 to 9 stars).

    Results: Finally, we selected 11 high-quality studies in our meta-analysis,which containing 486 patients. Meta-analysis showed that PCNL had higher stone-free rate [OR=3.55, 95% CI: 2.07 -6.10, P = 0.000], symptom-free rate [OR=3.56, 95% CI: 1.51 -8.38, p= 0.004], while it was slightly inferior to the FURL in bleeding volume [SMD = 1.27, 95% CI: (0.67,1.87), P = 0.000], hospital stay [SMD =2.86, 95% CI: 1.75-3.97, P = 0.000] and complication rate [OR =1.92, 95% CI: 1.10-3.33, P = 0.021], and there was no significant difference in operative time [SMD = -0.011, 95% CI: (-0.41,0.39), P = 0.957].

    Conclusion: PCNL is safe and effective in the treatment of CDs, which can be considered as the first choice for the clinical treatment of CDs.

  • Article
    Tristan Dellavedova, Enzo Malizia, Leandro Quinteros, Raul Nobile, Federico Minuzzi
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 430-434. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.62
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    Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) can progress to the lethal phenotype of metastatic castration resistance (mCRPC), either from initially localized disease or de novo metastatic cancer. New drugs improving overall survival are now the cornerstone of treatment. Nevertheless, there are no defined sequences or established timing to initiate or discontinue treatments; besides, not all patients end in CRPC or reach this stage at the same time.

    Objective: To evaluate characteristics of patients who progress to mCRPC and establish an association with time to mCRPC diagnosis.

    Material and Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and observational study of 35 mCRPC patients, performed from 2013 to 2017. Variables analyzed were age, Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, initial stage, response time to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), PSA nadir on ADT and time until mCRPC progression. Statistical analysis comparing variables with time to mCRPC diagnosis was performed.

    Results: Average age at diagnosis was 68.9 years; PSA values were classified into 3 categories: <20 ng/ml, 20-50 and >50. Gleason score was 7 in 50%, and 8-9 in the rest. Tumor was initially localized in 46% of the patients and metastatic in the rest. PSA nadir on ADT was <1 ng/ml in 67%. Average time to androgen deprivation: 5.5 years, time to mCRPC diagnosis: 6.9 years. Significant associations between time to mCRPC and time of androgen deprivation, PSA nadir during ADT and stage at diagnosis were found.

    Conclusion: Response time to ADT <1 year, PSA nadir value >5 ng/ml during treatment and metastatic stage at diagnosis were associated with earlier progression to mCRPC.

  • Article
    Isabel Casal-Beloy, Sara Ramallo Varela, Miriam García-González, Iván Somoza Argibay
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 435-440. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.63
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    Background: Meatal advancement with glanduloplasty (MAGPI) has been in the recent years one of the most frequently surgical techniques used for the correction of distal hypospadias. Multiple modifications have been described to improve the results ofthis technique. In 2004 we presented the initial results of the New Modern MAGPI or DUAGPI (distal urethral advancement and glanduloplasty) as a surgical alternative to the original MAGPI.

    Objetive: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the applicability, safety and the cosmetic results obtained with this technique, as well as the long-term complications.

    Materials and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study of patients with distal hypospadias, corrected using the DUAPI technique, between 2002 and 2018. Surgical technique: Initially, an artificial erection was performed, the absence of curvature in all patients is proven. A skin denudation was performed up to the base of the penis in those children with a bend greater than 30. Second, the distal urethral disconnection was performed at the posterior and lateral urethral level. A glandular triangular section is made to accommodate the distal urethra and to allow a conical appearance with a final glandular. Finally, the fixation of the distal urethral to the glandular tip and the anterior glandular closure is performed. We performed an annual follow-up of all patients. The analysis of all the variables collected during surgery and follow-up was done with SPSS 22 statistical package.

    Results: 90 patients meet inclusion criteria and were included in the study (32 glandular and 58 coronal). The mean surgical time was 47 minutes (Range: 37-71 minutes). The mean follow-up was 9.4 years (2.1-15 years). 2 patients had meatal stenosis after surgery, 4 mild glandular retraction, and 2 urethrocutaneous fistula. Six of the 8 patients with a complication were successfully reoperated. 92% of the patients and their families were satisfied with the cosmetic result obtained after surgery (83 patients).

    Conclusion: DUAGPI technique is simple, reproducible and optimal for most distal hypospadias. It is a safe technique, with a low complication rate. The final aesthetic result is satisfactory in most cases, with a conical glans and a natural cosmetic appearance.

  • Article
    Marina Gómez de Quero Córdoba, Juan Pablo Hervás Pérez, Ángel Vicario Merino, Cayetana Ruíz Zaldibar, Montserrat Ruíz López, Paloma Portillo Bernal
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 441-446. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.64
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    Introduction: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has a general incidence of > 10% in the female population of the Western world. The pessary is a silicone device, it is inserted into the vagina to provide support to the pelvic organs. It is used as a conservative treatment to improve prolapse symptoms.

    Objective: To evaluate urination among women with a pessary and women without a pessary and to evaluate the effectiveness of pessary treatment in pelvic organ prolapse with voiding difficulties.

    Material and Methods: A prospective and quasi-experimental observational study of an analytical nature was conducted. It will consist of analyzing the results of treatment with vaginal pessaries in women with POP. A total of 60 women were chosen as a sample of the study, 50% were placed with the pessary. PGI test and uroflujometry were used.

    Results: The placement of pessary shows how there is a significant correlation between the quality of life of women and urination.

    Conclusions: There is a relationship between the improvement of the quality of life and the improvement of the mycological dynamics of women in pessary treatment. However, the improvement in the quality of life cannot be attributed solely to the improvement of urinary flow, but also to the well-being caused by the reduction of POP.

  • Article
    Kayhan Yılmaz, Mahmut Taha Ölçücü, Özgür Arı, Kaan Karamik, Yasin Aktaş, Murat Savaş, Mutlu Ateş
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 447-452. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.65
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    Introduction: To evlauate role of peritoneal re-approximation methods in the prevention of symphtomatic lymphocele formation in patients underwent transperitoneal robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (tRALP) and extendeded pelvic lympadenoctomy (ePLND).

    Materials and Methods: Between January 2016 and April 2020, 120 consecutive patients who were administered anterior t-RALP and ePLND were analyzed retrospectively. In group 1 (n = 40), peritoneal approximation was not performed after t-RALP and ePLND application, peritoneal half re-approximation was performed in group 2 (n=40), and peritoneal full re-approximation was performed in group 3 (n=40). Operative parameters and symptomatic lymphocele rates were compared between the groups.

    Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age, body mass index and prostatespecific antigen levels, Gleason score on biopsy, D'amico risk groups, the mean number of lymph nodes removed, Clavien-Dindo complication grade and mean duration of the surgery. Patients with symptomatic lymphocele in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 were found to be 2 (5%), 3 (7.5%) and 5 (12.5%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of symptomatic lymphocele formation.

    Conclusion: Half or full closure of the peritoneum does not affect the symptomatic lymphocele formation in patients who underwent tRALP and ePLND.

  • Article
    Miguel Angel Bergero, Lucas Costa, Patricio Modina, Fernando Dipatto, Carlos David, Eder Silveira Brazao Junior
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 453-458. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.66
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    Objective: To analyze the trifecta results in patients with T1a and T1b renal tumors treated with retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN).

    Material and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective observational study was conducted on 106 patients with cT1 renal tumor submitted to RPN. Trifecta was reported as no ≥ 2 Clavien-Dindo complications, warm ischemia time (WIT) ≤ 25 minutes, ≤ 15% postoperative ΔGFR, and nonpositive margins.

    Results: The mean age was 58 years (SD ± 12). The median (Q1; Q3) tumor size was 3.5 (2.2; 4.5) cm. Of the treated patients, 33% had a ventral tumor. R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was low complexity in 54% of cases and high complexity in 4%. WIT median (Q1; Q3) was 20 (14; 23) minutes. Estimated blood loss median (Q1; Q3) was 50 (0; 100) ml. There were no conversions to open surgery. ΔGFR was >15% in 17.5% of patients. There were no postoperative complications in 84% of cases. Nonpositive margins were observed. Sixty-eight percent were pT1a and 32% were pT1b. Seventy-two percent of patients presented trifecta. A statistically significant difference was found between trifecta and tumor size (3 cm vs. 4.4 cm; p<0.001), complexity (low complexity 90% vs. intermediate complexity 56%; p<0.0001), and pT (T1a 81% vs. T1b 53%; p<0.003).

    Conclusion: RPN is a safe and effective treatment modality for T1a and T1b renal tumors. Trifecta rate was 72%. Tumor size, tumor complexity, and pT were found to be an associated factor for trifecta.

  • Article
    Ibrahim Akalin, Bulent Erol, Ezgi Aslan, S. Seyma Ozkanli, Ozgur Efiloglu, Salih Yildirim, Turhan Caskurlu, Asif Yildirim, M. Ihsan Karaman
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 459-466. https://doi.org/10.37554/en-20210424-3467-19
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    Purpose: The progress of prostate cancer entails complex contemporaneous tumor developmental events in diverse stages that they are still yet to be clarified. miRNAs might accompany to balance between regulatory and cytotoxic T cells in tumors. Here, we investigated miRNAs and Regulatory T cell (Treg) marker FOXP3 expressions within prostate cancer spectrum.

    Methods: Thirty-eight prostate cancer patients enrolled within two groups to the study as having Gleason Score ≤ 7 (Group-1) and ≥ 8 (Group-2) that compared to 19 benign prostate hyperplasia controls. Twelve miRNAs expressions were analyzed by real time PCR from paraffin-embedded prostate tissue samples. Correlations between serum PSA levels, immunohistochemical staining of CD3, CD4, FOXP3 and miRNA expressions were analyzed.

    Results: In our study, hsa-let7c-3p significantly 1,52 (p=0.018) and 1,84 (p=0.0095) fold down- regulated whereas, miR-141-3p was significantly 2,36 (p=0.0006) and 2,24 (p=0.001) fold upregulated in the prostate cancer patients compared to benign prostate hyperplasia in group 1 and 2, respectively. Only CD4 (p=0.004) and PSA (p<0.001) have statistically significant differences among groups when compared to benign prostate hyperplasia. miR-143-p, miR-221-3p, hsa-let7c-3p and miR-17-3p expressions were significantly correlated with regulatory T cell marker FOXP3 expression.

    Conclusions: For the first time, we reported significantly altered expression levels of miRNAs (miR-let7c, miR221, miR-146a, miR-141, miR-143, miR17) and correlations between Treg marker FOXP3 in the aggressive prostate cancer patients suggesting that prostate cancer progression might be under the regulation of crosstalk between Tregs and miRNAs.

  • Article
    Huaping Chen, Xiaolong Wu, Zhi Wen, Yifeng Zhu, Liuhui Liao, Jie Yang
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 467-471. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.68
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    Background: The clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) was investigated.

    Methods: All patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and postoperative intravesical chemotherapy had their peripheral blood levels of NLR, PLR, and MLR quantified. The preoperative peripheral blood levels of NLR, PLR, and MLR were analyzed in patients with G1, G2, and G3 NMIBC. A total of 208 patients was divided into poor prognosis (PP, with recurrence, n=51) and good prognosis (GP, no recurrence, n=157) groups, according to whether the recurrence of NMIBC was observed at 1-year follow-up after treatment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic factors in NMIBC. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the prognostic performance of NLR, PLR, and MLR in NMIBC.

    Results: The preoperative peripheral blood level of PLR was significantly increased in patients with G3 NMIBC compared with that in patients with G1 (p < 0.05) and G2 NMIBC (p < 0.05). The results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the tumor diameter, differentiation grade, and preoperative peripheral blood levels of NLR, PLR, and MLR were independent prognostic factors for NMIBC recurrence (p < 0.05). Compared with the NMIBC patients without recurrence, 3.490%, 177.575% and 3.175% were determined as the optimum prognostic cutoffs for NLR, PLR, and MLR, respectively. ROC curve was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of NLR, PLR, MLR, and combinations. In contrast to NLR, PLR, or MLR, the combination of NLR, PLR, and MLR (AUC 0.758, sensitivity 66.70%, specificity 89.80%,Youden index 0.565) improved the prognostic performance in the discrimination of NMIBC patients with recurrence from thosewithout recurrence.

    Conclusions: The preoperative peripheral blood levels of NLR, PLR, and MLR, which were closely related to the grade and recurrence of NMIBC, were easy to detect and inexpensive. Moreover, these three factors showed the potential for auxiliary prognostic evaluation of NMIBC, wherein the combination than individual values exhibited better prognostic performance.

  • Case Report
    Laura Alonso Calvar, Laura Rúger Jiménez, Sergio Fdez-Pello Montes, Gloria Meijide Santos, Raúl Rodríguez Aguilar, Luis Rodríguez-Villamil
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 472-475. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.69
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    Objective: To assess the non-pancreatic retroperitoneal pseudocyst in the differenctial diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic masses.

    Methods: To report a case.

    Results: We present a case of a 50-year-old woman with symptoms of pain and a palpable abdominal mass. In imaging studies a 13-cm retroperitoneal cystic mass with left ureterohydronephrosis was observed. Surgical excision of the mass was performed with pathological diagnosis of non-pancreatic retroperitoneal pseudocyst.

    Conclusion: Non-pancreatic retroperitoneal pseudocyst is an entity with a very low incidence, benign, usually asymptomatic. It can grow compressing on adjacent structures. The definitive diagnosis is histopathological and the treatment is surgical. It's important to carry out complete exeresis to avoid recurrences.

  • Case Report
    Mikel Aizcorbe Gómez, Oskar Jon Estradé Suárez, Jose Luis Lozano Ortega, Antón Arruza Echevarría
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 476-479. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.70
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    Objective: Although the sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease that theoretically can affect almost any organ, the presence of sarcoidosis in the male urethra has not been described in the medical literature. We present the first male case of urethral sarcoidosis.

    Method: A 46 years old male undergoing follow up due to lower urinary tract symptoms was diagnosed of endobronchial sarcoidosis during the preoperative study for internal urethrotomy. After surgery, he presented clinical improvement for one year. Given the worsening, a new internal urethrotomy was tried. As it was impossible due to complexity they took a biopsy of the urethra. The pathology report described non-caseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. After that, medical and endoscopic management of the urethral sarcoidosis was attempted. As it didn't achieve an adequate control, the patient was derivate to the "complex urethral unit" of the Cruces University Hospital. Once it was valuated, it was decided to start immunotherapy and subsequently an urethroplasty with a double oral mucosa graft was performed.

    Outcomes: During the postoperative period, a urethral catheter was maintained for two weeks. It was removed after no urinary leakage was observed in de cystourethrography. After that the patient remains with good evolution until today.

    Conclusions: Urethral affectation by sarcoidosis is a therapeutic challenge itself. For a better symptom control and to reduce the recurrences, a dual approach using systemic treatment in combination with local surgical treatment seems necessary.

  • Case Report
    Juan Carlos González Matos, Juan Jesús Gómez-Herrera, María Pilar Ortega de la Obra
    Archivos Españoles de Urología. 2022, 75(5): 480-481. https://doi.org/10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227505.71
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    Oncocytomas are benign tumors, with the classic stellate scar found in up to a third of cases, mainly in large ones. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with a palpable, mobile, and painless mass on the right flank, where abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography detected the presence of a solid right kidney lesion with a central stellate area in the sinus. Postoperative histological analysis confirmed the presence of oncocytoma with a central stellate scar. Biopsy may not be useful to distinguish this entity from renal carcinoma, surgery being necessary for definitive confirmation of the diagnosis of oncocytoma.