The role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders has vastly expanded in the last few years. The indications list growing to include conditions ranging from detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, neurogenic and idiopathic detrusor overactivity, painful bladder syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms consequent upon bladder outflow obstruction. This treatment is minimally invasive, shows a remarkable efficacy and has effects lasting up to one year. We review the latest evidence both basic science and clinical to address some of the key questions regarding this treatment modality. There is an abundance of evidence supporting the efficacy, safety and tolerability of this treatment. However, It is clear that much work is still required to understand the mechanism(s) of action of the toxin and more robust placebo controlled randomised trials need to be undertaken to answer the many remaining questions concerning this novel treatment. Nevertheless this treatment modality has remarkable efficacy and minimal side effects and thus will be a key future treatment option for a wide range of indications.
Focal therapy involves destroying the cancer focus and the tissue surrounding the cancer in order to offer patients the potential of combining cancer control with minimal side-effects. Current standard of care involve either surveillance or radical therapy. Neither of these is ideal. Active surveillance carries risk of undertreatment, psychological morbidity as a result of anxiety and is not without side-effects due to repeated biopsies., Although radical therapy is the gold standard for curative treatment it carries risks of over-treatment with its numerous side-effects. With the proportion of unifocal or unilateral disease among men with low-risk disease rising, a focal approach could avoid both under and over-treatment. With the advent of improved accuracy for cancer localization provided by multi-parametric MRI and new biopsy strategies such as transperineal mapping biopsies, ablative modalities such as cryotherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy and radio-interstitial tumour ablation make a focal treatments a real possibility.
OBJETIVES: Prostate adenocarcinoma is found in surgical samples without prior diagnosis in 4 to 15% of the patients. In some of them, there is previous suspicion but in others this finding is completely incidental. We present 7 cases of prostate cancer detected in 100 patients who underwent bipolar transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate due to regular indications. The aim of this paper is to describe patient´s characteristics, postoperative outcome, analyze TURP as a diagnostic tool and evaluate therapeutic options for prostate cancer (PCa).METHODS: One hundred patients with bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent TURP in FUCDIM between June 2007 and August 2009. In 7 of them, prostate adenocarcinomas were detected. None of the patients underwent TURP only because of increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA).RESULTS: Mean preoperative PSA was 7.6 ng/ml (r= 0.72 -27 ng/ml), 39% of the patients had PSA < 4 ng/ml; 33 (40%) had undergone previous biopsies and 36% of them had 2 or more biopsies. Prostate cancer detection global rate was 7%, 3 cases were incidental findings (low PSA and low-risk tumors), 3 patients had increased PSA and several previous biopsies with negative results and 1 had low PSA and aggressive tumor (Gleason 4+3). CONCLUSIONS: TURP patients with prostate cancer are a heterogeneous group. TURP can be both diagnostic and therapeutic when facing patients with obstructive symptoms, high PSA and negative prostate biopsies. There are several therapeutic alternatives for TURP patients with cancer, taking into consideration tumor grade and stage, age, life expectancy and will of the patient. Bipolar TUR, in selected patients, allows to offer optional active surveillance (in these patients PSADT is very useful) and if cancer is not found, it eases the follow up of these patients. Active treatment (surgery or radiotherapy) is indicated in T1a patients with life expectancy longer than 10 years, and in the majority of T1b patients.
OBJECTIVES: This paper has two main objectives: First, to expose the URS technique used in our Department because there are important differences with respect to others centres published, explaining same aspect that can benefit to the better development of the technique. Second, we present the results of a series of 100 cases. Flexible ureterorenoscopy (Flex URS) has been little used to date, mainly because of the technical difficulties created by the deficient quality of the instruments used, such as ureteroscopes offering scant visibility, poor illumination, a small working channel, de-ficient quality of the forceps and baskets, etc. METHODS: We present our recent series of flexible URS for the treatment of renal lithiasis.We performes a retrospective analysis of this treatment corresponding to the period between January 2007 and March 2010. In this period we have treated 100 patients.The medium size of the stone treated is 1.5cm (0.5-6cm) and we used ureteroscopic protector sheath in all cases. The lithotripter system used in all cases was Ho:YAG Laser with 200 and 365 micras fibers RESULTS: The stone-free rate (SFR) in the immediate postoperative period was 77% (77/100 patients). Residual stones, defined as stone fragments visualized in the operating room via fluoroscopy and directly with the flexible ureteroscope.Three months after surgery, the SFR was 92.7% (89/96 patients) confirmed by intravenous urography. Regarding complications, we had 5 patients with ureteral lesions during protector sheath pass and 9 patients that presented at the emergency room with pain secondary to the double J catheter.CONCLUSIONS: Flexible URS for of renal lithiasis can be defended in stones measuring up to 2 cm in diameter, based on our treatment algorithm.
OBJECTIVE: To report an uncommon clinical case of spontaneous rupture of the superficial dorsal vein of penis. METHOD: A 27-year-old male patient attended the emergency room following spontaneous occurrence of a large hematoma and deformity in the penis. Rupture of cavernous bodies was initially suspected. RESULTS: Surgical examination revealed rupture of the superficial dorsal vein of penis, which was ligated. The patient was admitted to hospital for 24 hours, and showed total cosmetic and functional recovery at 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Rupture of the superficial dorsal vein of penis is an uncommon condition considered in differential diagnosis of penile hematoma. Doppler ultrasound of the penis may allow for its diagnosis and for excluding rupture of corpora cavernosa. Although conservative management appears to be of choice, surgical examination, providing good cosmetic and functional postoperative results, is indicated when a reasonable doubt exists about diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE: The commonest indications for ureteral stent placement are: obstructive nephrolithiasis, renoureteral surgery, urologic oncology, endourology and extrinsic ureteral compression.METHODS: We report the case of a 77-year-old male patient with a DJ ureteral catheter placed for an 8-month period and history of nephrolithiasis; the stent showed a 60 mm x 30 mm calcification, on its distal end.RESULTS: Open cystolithotomy and removal of stent resolved the clinic symptomatology.CONCLUSION: A prolonged indwell time of stents, as well as a history of nephrolithiasis and urinary infections may on many occasions result in calcification and encrustation of ureteral stents, and will lead to the use of endourology techniques, extracorporeal lithotripsy or open surgery to resolve these conditions.
OBJECTIVE: To report a new case of villous adenoma developed in augmentation colocystoplasty.METHODS: Characterization of a new case and review of the literature published to date.RESULTS: We report the case of a 66 year-old man with a villous adenoma and synchronic infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder after augmentation colocystoplasty. The latency period until the development of villous adenoma after surgery is long. Treatment consisted of transurethral resection.CONCLUSIONS: Villous adenoma is a benign neoplasm that occurs in the colonic mucosa and shows a high ability to become a malignant colonic cancer. Only two cases of villous adenoma in augmentation colocystoplasty have been reported. We recommend follow up with periodic cystoscopy because of its high malignancy potency.
OBJECTIVE: We report the case of a myelolipoma of the adrenal glands.METHOD/RESULTS: The patient is a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during a review in endocrinology. He underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions. Most are incidental findings during radiologic complementary. Treatment should be tailored to each particular case. Surgery is indicated when the mass exceeds the size 4-6 cm or when it is functioning.