Advances in the understanding of prostate and pelvic anatomy in recent years made a substantial contribution to improve the surgical technique for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC) with the potential preservation of anatomic structures responsible for erectile and urinary function postoperatively. Knowledge of these anatomic structures is key to achieve a complete removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles while preserving the best possible quality of life. The literature on prostate and pelvic anatomy has been reviewed and an updated notion of the surgical anatomy is herein provided.
OBJECTIVES: With the development and rise of abdominal laparoscopic techniques, the old Reverdin needle has had a revival, because it proved to be useful for the endoscopic closure of laparoscopic access ports, in order to lower the incidence of incisional hernias. Several new modifications of the Reverdin needle, with different names, are in the market now. This new use of an old instrument, prompted a review of the life and work of Jaques-Louis Reverdin, the Swiss surgeon trained in Paris and founder of the modern Swiss surgery.METHODS: Biographical and bibliographical review of Jaques-Louis Reverdin and his contributions to surgery.RESULTS: Jaques-Louis Reverdin (1842-1929), born in Geneva, completed his medical studies in Paris, where he practised in several well-known hospitals such as La Pitié (with Goselin), Saint Louis (with Guérin), Lariboisière, and Necker (with Guyon). In 1869 he published and presented in several meetings, a pioneering experience of successful free skin graft procedure, that is still performed in some cases and constitutes the first organ transplantation. In 1870 he presented his doctoral thesis “Etude sur l’uréthrotomie interne” with the experience of his master Guyon (63 operations), gaining the Civiale prize and the bronze medal of the Paris Faculty of Medicine. He returned back to Geneva in 1872 to begin a long surgical practice and Faculty teaching, and he made seminal contributions to the knowledge of thyroid diseases, in particular on the clinical presentation of function deficiency following exeresis of the thyroid gland (postoperative myxoedema). His contributions paralleled that made by Theodor Kocher in Bern, the surgeon that received in solitary the Nobel prize for these studies in 1909. With Jean-Louis Prevost and Constant Picot, they founded the “Revue medicale de la Suisse romande”, the most important Swiss medical journal of the 20th century. He is remembered in the field of Urology for a special needle designed to pass through a suture in a time were catgut and silk were the most employed sutures to control organ pedicles. CONCLUSIONS: Reverdin, that pertains to the glorious epoch were surgery -performed under anaesthesia and with the antisepsis postulates of Lister and Pasteur-, reached most of his goals, is remembered for the first human transplant (skin grafting) and, fortunately, one of the several surgical instrument he designed, the Reverdin needle, had a revival in current laparoscopic surgery
OBJECTIVES: To perform comparative analysis of the efficacy and the safety of six months formulation of LHRH analogues indicated for prostate cancer treatment.METHOD: Search in the PubMed database for clinical trials published between 2006 and 2009 using the following key words: “prostate cancer”, “triptorelin or leuprorelin” and “6-month depot”.RESULTS: The efficacy of all 3 six months formulation of LHRH analogues currently approved is high (96-98%) for reducing testosterone levels down to below 50 ng/dl.As the patients included in the three trials are quite heterogeneous, and due to the variability in the way of presenting results, it is not possible to compare testosterone escapes and their effect on PSA levels. The incidence of adverse events (AE) reported across the three trials was high, but only 0.9% to 15.8% were severe. Only one trial reported patient withdrawal (2.5%) because of drug-related AEs.CONCLUSION: Even though all the studies show and important variability in the analysis and data management, no significant efficacy and safety differences seem to exist。
OBJECTIVES: To present 4 cases with “undetectable” PSA levels (PSA <0.15ng/ml) on long-term postoperative follow-up after retropubic adenomectomy for BPHMETHODS: They come from a series of 70 consecutive cases of retropubic prostatic adenomectomies, monitored and controlled at the hospital in their biochemical, histological and morphometric analysis for 5 years following the intervention.RESULTS: Four patients have demonstrated PSA levels <0.15 in all controls after surgery. Mean follow-up of the global series: 45.25 months. There is correlation between this determination and histological and morphometric data, when they were achieved.CONCLUSIONS: “Undetectable” PSA after open prostatic adenomectomy could be an equivalent to the expression of “radical cure” of BPH, and a reliable marker for monitoring neo-hyperplasia.
OBJECTIVES: To find the detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) in our population with PSA values between 2.6 and 4 ng/ml. METHODS: We included 33 consecutive patients with a median age of 66 years, that had a Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy with PSA between 2.6-4 ng/ml. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with normal Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Group 2: Patients with DRE with asymmetry not definitive of PCa. Exclusion criteria: known history of PCa, intraepithelial neoplasia or Positive DRE. Statistical analysis: Chi square, t-student and Fischer exact test. RESULTS: Twenty eight percent of the patients (9) had positive biopsy for PCa. Fifty six percent (5) were Gleason 6 and 44% (4) Gleason 7 (3+4). Group 1 had 59% (20) and Group 2 41% in. In Group 1 16% (3)had positive biopsy for PCa vs 46% (6) in group 2 (p 0.04) RR 3.07.CONCLUSIONS: There are traces that the detection rate in our population could be lower in comparison with what has been reported in the literature. DRE is crucial in the initial evaluation; asymmetry could increase 3 fold the risk of having PCa.
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with penile fracture in the Hospital Universitario del Valle (Cali, Colombia).METHODS: A descriptive study, reviewing all the medical records of patientsdiagnosed with penile fracture from January 2001 to December 2008 at Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV) in Cali. It took into account variables related to urological history, etiology, diagnosis, the surgical treatment and followup. Univariate analysis was performed with the statistical program STATA v. 10.1 RESULTS: There were 18 cases of penile fracture with an average age of 30 years. 11 patients (61%) had episodes related to intercourse. Patients presented swelling, pain and popping or cracking sound. The diagnosis was done by history and physical examination in 100%. Surgery was performed with a subcoronal incision in most of the patients. The right corpus cavernosum was frequently injured and corrected with absorbable suture. The patients had an average of 1.5 days of postoperative hospital stay.CONCLUSIONS: Penile fracture is an entity the diagnosis of which is straightforward and can be reliable by history and physical examination. Surgical repair is the treatment of choice preventing complications, allowing the patient to return to satisfactory sexual life.
OBJECTIVES: With the increased use of minimally invasive surgery, the urethral diverticulum after anorectal surgery has become an issue. The few cases reported have been managed by surgical excision. We hereby report a case of urethral diverticulum after a laparoscopically-assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP)procedure with a successful outcome after a period of active surveillance.METHODS: A full-term boy who displayed a high anorectal malformation (ARM) and a recto-prostatic fistula underwent colostomy on the first day. He also showed associated malformations: bilateral low-grade reflux, horseshoe kidney and thoracic hemivertebrae; however, there were no signs of spinal cord tethering. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was started. RESULTS: At the age of 3 months, he underwent a LAARP with a 3 abdominal-port approach. After complete dissection of the distal bowel, the recto-prostatic fistula was identified and tied with metallic clips. A 10 mm trocar was inserted through the centre of the sphincteric complex, which had been previously identified under laparoscopic view during perineal electrical stimulation. The anorectal pull-through was accomplished without tension. The bladder remained stented for 14 days. On the 18th postoperative day, a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) showed a 15 X 5 mm image of the diverticulum at the level of the membranous urethra. After 6 months, a new VCUG showed a normal urethra with neither signs of the diverticulum nor strictures; persistence of grade 2 reflux on the right side and resolution of the reflux on the left. When the boy was one year old his colostomy was closed uneventfully. Six months later he had not come into the emergency since the operation and voided with a normal flow. CONCLUSION: This report suggests that LAARP is a feasible approach for ARM, although urethral diverticulum is a major concern. It may evolve without complications, and eventually resolve spontaneously. Active surveillance might be an option in selected asymptomatic patients; however a longer follow-up is advised to constitute better evidence supporting that policy.
Leydig Cell Tumors (LCT) in children are very rare, with an incidence of 1-3% for all testicular tumors in children. Clinical presentation is testicular mass, pain and hormone alteration such as precocious puberty and gynecomastia. We present one case of LCT and his conservative management after an incidental finding. Literature is reviewed.
OBJETIVES: Fibroepithelial polyps are benign mesenchymal tumors with a morphology and clinical presentation very similar to transitional cell carcinomas, so that differential diagnosis is of paramount importance.METHODS/RESULTS: We present the case of a 42-year-old female patient, with history of mediastinal Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which came to the office reporting right low back colic pain and haematuria. CT scan showed pediculated neoformation of about 10 cm protruding into the bladder, with negative urine cytology. In view of the findings, and with the suspicion of fibroepithelial polyp, an endoscopic exploration was performed, confirming the diagnosis, followed by exeresis with Holmium laser.DISCUSSION: A differential diagnosis between fibroepithelial polyp and transitional cell carcinoma cannot be made with imaging tests alone. The suspicion must be established, and endoscopic exploration indicated, by means of ureterorenoscopy or percutaneous nephroureteroscopy, whatever is a better indication, with biopsy or definitive endoscopic treatment of the tumor.CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic exploration is currently the procedure of choice for the diagnostic confirmation of this condition and its definitive treatment.
OBJETIVE: To report a new case of penile fibro-epithelial polyp and its treatment.METHODS: A 39 year-old patient who came to the outpatient clinic due to a warted growth he had noticed on the frenulum of prepuce of his penis which was narrowing the urethral meatus and impairing his voiding.RESULTS: Total exeresis of the lesion and circumcision were performed. The histopathologic study revealed a fibroepithelial polyp. The patient is asymptomatic and without any recurrence.CONCLUSIONS: The importance of considering this type of lesion in the differential diagnosis of penis tumors is confirmed because its macroscopic aspect seems like a cancerogenic new formation on this organ.