OBJECTIVES: Numerous predictive models relating to prostate cancer staging and outcomes have been described. We sought to review and categorize these predictive tools to create a comprehensive reference for physicians who treat prostate cancer. METHODS: We performed a search of MEDLINE literature from January 1966 to April 2012 to identify predictive models relating to prostate cancer staging, treatment, and outcomes in the pre-treated patient. For each model identified, we describe the outcome predicted, the variables comprising the model, the size of the cohort on which the tool was developed, predictive discrimination estimates, and whether internal and/or external validation has been performed. RESULTS: We identified 80 predictive tools applicable to pre-treated prostate cancer patients, 30 of which had been externally validated. Tools designed to predict pathologic stage were the most common; several models focused on accurately predicting clinically insignificant prostate cancer while another large proportion focused on the prediction of locally advanced disease (i.e. extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle involvement, lymph node invasion). Other models described studied biochemical outcomes following radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or brachytherapy. Very few models addressed the prediction of metastasis and survival. Finally, several tools incorporated novel pre-treatment serum biomarkers or magnetic resonance imaging findings into base models to enhance the accuracy of standard clinicopathologic variables. CONCLUSION: To deliver optimal, individualized prostate cancer care, treatment should be tailored to the specific characteristics of each patient and each tumor. Predictive models may facilitate such an approach and are numerously described in the literature. While the performance of predictive models is encouraging, further improvement through inclusion of biomarkers as well as evaluation of their clinical utility is imperative. Optimally, predictive models should be further studied in the prospective setting.
OBJECTIVES: To test patient`s satisfaction after consultation in the outpatient area of the Urology Department in a public hospital using a structured interview.METHODS: We used the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (CAM) standard interview form modified to include three questions related to the implementation of a ‘one-visit’ policy and nurses’ empowerment. Patients’ opinions were gathered with respect to waiting times in the waiting room, facilities, and staff kindness and professionalism. Sample size was estimated in 386 patients. The effect of every predictive factor on the overall satisfaction was tested using the chi square test. To define the effect of every variable in presence of the rest of covariates a logistic regression model was used.RESULTS: Participation reached 65.5%. Overall, 86.4% of the patients were satisfied. Irrespectively of the professional and personal style, the quality perception was homogeneous (p=ns). Multivariate analysis couldn’t disclose any independent predictive variable. Only the perception in the item ‘overall time available for the consultation’ approached statistical significance (p=0.08), with patients scoring high in this variable getting the highest overall satisfaction scores.CONCLUSIONS: There was no personal or professional style particularly related with patient satisfaction. Nevertheless, there is a slight trend towards a higher satisfaction when patients feel enough time has been spent in their consultation. The new organizational resources (one-visit clinic and nurses’ empowerment) are both welcome but are not clearly related to patient satisfaction.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the validity of the ratio between the second and fourth finger (digit ratio; 2D/4D) of the left hand as a predictor for prostate cancer (PCa) in a group of men undergoing prostate biopsy.METHODS: We prospectively recruited 204 consecutive patients referred for transrectal prostate biopsy due to PSA elevation or abnormal digital rectal examination between January 2008 and June 2009. The same physician performed all clinical examinations, digit ratio measurements and transrectal biopsy in all cases. Digit ratio determination was done with a Vernier caliper in the left hand. Patients underwent determination of hormone profile (testosterone and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG)) between 7:00AM and 11:00AM.Age, digital rectal examination, PSA, free PSA, PSA density, testosterone and SHBG, pathological report and D2 and D4 measurements were recorded prospectively.RESULTS: Variables age and SHBG were directly related to PCa. Prostate volume was inversely related to neoplasia. 2D/4D ratio >0,95 (OR (CI 95%) 4,4 (1,491-13,107) was related to neoplasia. No differences in PCa were seen regarding PSA, free PSA, PSA density, digital rectal examination and testosterone.CONCLUSION: High digit ratio predicts PCa in men undergoing prostate biopsy. Digit ratio >0,95 has 4-fold risk of PCa compared to men with digit ratio <0.95
OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in the epidemiology and clinical profile of patients diagnosed with renal clear cell carcinoma in a community health area over 12 years.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of epidemiological characteristics and clinical profile of patients diagnosed with renal clear cell carcinoma in a health area composed of a population of 353.619 inhabitants from January 1999 to December 2010. Descriptive statistical and multivariate analysis, Fisher exact test and Chi-Square were utilized. p< was accepted as significant. RESULTS: 349 diagnoses of renal mass were reported; 165 of them were clear renal cell carcinoma. Median age was 70.41 years, and the Female/Male rate was 28% and 72%, respectively. 4% women and 30% men smoked ≥20cigarettes/day, more frequently during the period 1999-2001. 52% women and 30% men had hypertension. Hematuria was the most frequent symptom (23%), more frequent in the period 2007-2010, followed by abdominal pain (16%) and renal colic (13%). Weight loss (12%) was more frequent between 1999-2000. Asthenia appeared as the first symptom in 8% of cases. The tumor was incidentally diagnosed in 20% of cases, more frequently in the period between 2007-2010.Diagnosis was established in the Urology Department in 36% of the cases. Stages T1-2 N0 were more frequent between 2007-2010, and M1 between 1999-2000. G3 was more frequent in the entire series. The relative cancer specific mortality of patients who were surgically treated was less in the last 2 years of the period. CONCLUSIONS: Clear renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent renal cancer and its incidence is increasing in our environment. It affects more frequently males than females, and at an earlier age. The last few years are showing a decrease in the habitual smoker males and an increase in HTN in females. A tendency has been detected to the early stage clinical diagnosis but with a higher histopathological grade. It is most frequent diagnosed by a non-Urology speciality.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of renal angiomyolipoma treated by robotic assisted surgery.METHOD AND RESULTS: We report the case of a 26 year old females patient, in the context of third month pregnancy, who was diagnosed of spontaneous self-limited retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to renal angiomyolipoma. The patient was treated conservatively until normal delivery. At the 3rd month postpartum a robot-assisted (Da Vinci S) nephron sparing surgery (partial nephrectomy) was performed.CONCLUSION: Despite being a benign tumor, there are cases in which the renal angiomyolipoma requires surgical treatment. To our knowledge, after a thorough review of the literature, this would be the first reported case of angiomyolipoma treated with conservative surgery with robotic assistance (da Vinci S).
OBJECTIVE: Bladder injuries are quite rare and complex complications of transobturator tapes in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, with very few published cases. The authors present a case report and discuss possible injury mechanisms and the role of cystoscopy in this setting.METHODS: A 51 year-old female with past surgical history of Burch colposuspension underwent an uneventful transobturator tape surgery. After 15 days, she complained of dysuria and frequency. Cystoscopy revealed the tape protruding within the bladder.RESULTS: Reoperation was performed with the sub-urethral segment of the tape removed by vaginal approach and the vesical one excised endoscopically. Presently, the patient is asymptomatic.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with previous incontinence surgical treatments, cystoscopy at the time of surgery should be considered to exclude and treat eventual injuries, in order to avoid future complications.
OBJECTIVE: In recent years new techniques in minimally invasive treatment of congenital stenosis of ureteropelvic junction have been developed. We report the treatment of pyeloureteral stenosis in children by percutaneous endopyelotomy.METHODS: In the work up study of a child (18 months) with abdominal palpable mass, a severe left hydronephrosis with a renal pelvis diameter of 65 mm and severely thinned renal parenchyma was found. The diuretic renogram showed an obstructive pattern with impaired renal function. Initially, a retrograde dilatation balloon was placed in the ureteropelvic junction under cistoscopic control. With the patient in modified Valdivia position, percutaneous access to the renal pelvis was performed. By Seldinger techniqueand under fluoroscopy guide, a 5 mm laparoscopic trocar was placed in the renal pelvis.We performed a percutaneous electrical endopyelotomy of the pyeloureteral junction over the 6 mm retrograde balloon dilator passed through. We placed an antegrade double J stent that was removed at 4 weeks uneventfully.RESULT: Good results were assessed without perioperative or postoperative complications with great improvement in renal dilatation two years after the intervention. The renogram showed improvement in the pattern of the curve with a slight increase in differential renal function.CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous endopyelotomy in children has important issues due to the lack of appropriate material. However it is possible to get good results as a minimally invasive technique. In fact, it could be the ideal technique in severe hydronephrosis with large renal pelvis that prevents the surgical or endourological approach.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of tubulocystic renal carcinoma diagnosed in an adult, after a work up study for hematuria.METHODS/RESULTS: 59-year-old male, CT scan was performed during a study for self-limited hematuria showing a 4.2 cm solid mass with areas suspicious of pseudocystic malignancy. Due to its debut with hematuria and renal sinus involvement laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed, establishing the diagnosis of tubulocystic carcinoma (low grade collecting duct carcinoma).CONCLUSION: Tubulocystic carcinoma presents histological characteristics and a natural history that makes it different from the classic type of Bellini duct carcinoma, the latter being a rapidly growing tumor with poor prognosis which is usually diagnosed in advanced stages.
OBJECTIVE: Overactive bladder may have a neurogenic or non neurogenic origin. Sometimes, as a result of detrusor overactivity, disorders of the upper urinary tract function may appear. One of these alterations may be the appearance of associated vesicoureteral reflux. The treatment of overactive bladder may be done with anticholinergic drugs and if there is not response the use of botulin toxin type A is approved.The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the effect of botulin toxin type A in the treatment of overactive bladder and vesicoureteral reflux secondary to the overactive bladder.METHOD: We present the case of a 10-year-old patient without significant past medical history. When he was one year old he had a urinary infection and voiding cystourethrogram showed grade 1 right vesicoureteral reflux. When he was 4 year old he presented several episodes of pyelonephritis and then he was diagnosed of severe bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, which did not respond to treatment with Macroplastic ® or Deflux ®. Urodynamic study was performed showing overactive bladder with decreased bladder compliance.RESULTS: We performed intravesical injection of 200 U of botulin toxin type A and vesicoureteral reflux disappeared and urodynamic study improved. One year later we reinjected botulin toxin type A (300 U) and we repeated the injection after one year (300 U). The patient is currently well, without changes in the urodynamic study and without vesicoureteral reflux.CONCLUSION: Repeated injections of botulin toxin type A has shown great efficacy in the treatment of overactive bladder in children with vesicoureteral reflux improved secondary